(Edinburgh 1811 – Rome 1872)
After studying medicine in Edinburgh, he moved to Rome in 1840, for health reasons. Upon his arrival there as a painter, he soon began taking an interest in photography. He used large-format negatives and his pictures stand out for their long exposure time so as to portray in detail the Roman architecture and sculpture, the ruins, and the landscape. His talent was even greater than that of his fellow countryman James Anderson. In 1851, he began selling views of monuments and landscapes to tourists on the Grand Tour, and reproduced the images with a lithograph process on stone and metal, which he invented and officially patented. In 1863, he took over 300 plates of the sculptures in the Vatican Museums which he published in an album, obtaining great commercial success.